1:38 – Advertisement – – Advertisement – 1:54 Their ability to move three points clear was helped by second-placed Ipswich losing 2-1 at Sunderland. Charlie Wyke edged the Black Cats ahead inside the first 10 minutes of a game where the kick-off was delayed by half-an-hour due to technical issues relating to external broadcast infrastructure.Jack Lankester levelled for Town before the break, but after Andre Dozzell was sent off after a foul on Grant Leadbitter, the visitors struggled to find a way back in the game and Leadbitter went on to score the winner from the penalty spot after Mark McGuinness’ apparent handball.Lee Bowyer’s Charlton won their sixth game in a row after beating Fleetwood 3-2 at The Valley. Joe Piggott put the Dons ahead twice, but Matt Smith and then veteran James Coppinger hit back to ensure Rovers left south west London with a point.Oxford climbed off the bottom of the table with a 3-1 win over Rochdale.Elliott Moore netted either side of Olamide Shodipo’s goal, while Dale failed to build on Matty Lund’s penalty three minutes before the break. Highlights of the Sky Bet League One match between AFC Wimbledon and Doncaster. – Advertisement – Highlights of the Sky Bet League One match between Charlton and Fleetwod. 2:00 Plymouth came out on top in a six-goal thriller that saw them beat 10-man Swindon 4-2 at Home Park.Luke Jephcott and Joe Edwards put the hosts 2-0 up inside seven minutes, but Hallam Hope and Anthony Grant ensured it was 2-2 with less than half-an-hour on the clock.Jephcott then added a third for Argyle, before Jonny Smith was sent off for a second bookable offence in first half stoppage-time. Town held firm until the closing stages, when Conor Grant made it 4-2 with a minute to play.Meanwhile, AFC Wimbledon‘s first game at their new Plough Lane home ended all square as they were held to an entertaining 2-2 draw by Doncaster. Leaders Peterborough opened up a three-point gap at the top of the Sky Bet League One table, following a routine 2-0 win over Bristol Rovers at the Memorial Stadium.Jack Taylor put Darren Ferguson’s men ahead three minutes before the break with a 25-yard stunner, before Dan Butler sealed victory just after the hour mark with a thunderbolt of his own to seal victory.- Advertisement – Highlights of the Sky Bet League One match between Bristol Rovers and Peterborough. Elsewhere, Sullay Kaikai’s second-half goal earned Blackpool a 1-0 win over Wigan, Daniel Udoh scored a 98th-minute equaliser as strugglers Shrewsbury and Burton played out a 1-1 draw at Montgomery Waters Meadow, with John Akinde’s goal enough to earn Gillingham a 1-0 win over Crewe.Northampton and MK Dons played out a dour 0-0 draw at Sixfields. Goals from Ben Purrington and Conor Washington put the Addicks in a commanding lead, but two goals in a minute from Ched Evans put their winning streak under threat. Washington, however, made sure of the victory by scoring a penalty five minutes after the break.Portsmouth‘s John Marquis continued his fine form by scoring two goals in a 3-1 victory over Lincoln at Sincil Bank.The frontman made it seven goals in five games when he netted either side of half-time, before Ronan Curtis added a third to put Pompey in control. Tom Hopper pulled on back for the Imps late on but it proved to be nothing more than a consolation. 1:58 Highlights of the Sky Bet League One match between Ipswich and Sunderland.
Annie Murphy and Catherine O’Hara YouTubeIt’s a mini Schitt’s Creek union! Catherine O’Hara and Annie Murphy reunited for the loveliest holiday campaign with Hudson’s Bay. And Moira and Alexis Rose would one hundred percent approve.On Tuesday, November 3, the Canadian department store dropped the most adorable video featuring the two Emmy-winning actresses.- Advertisement – – Advertisement – Meanwhile, Murphy said that holiday joy to her is all about spreading the seasonal spirit. “For me, that joy is sobbing through ‘It’s A Wonderful Life’ in front of the family Christmas tree.”Though O’Hara has long been a staple of the comedic community, before Murphy made her name on the hit sitcom, she had a difficult time booking roles.“Just before Schitt’s Creek, things were quite bleak,” she said during an appearance on The Kelly Clarkson Show at the start of this year. “My house had just burned down. I had, like, $3 in my bank account. I hadn’t worked in close to two years, and I had just blown my very first screen test … I found myself crying in the Pacific Ocean, a very snotty cry, and the universe was like, ‘Don’t do this anymore. This is not for you!’ But then, two days later, I got the audition for Schitt’s Creek.”- Advertisement – Now look at her working in holiday campaigns with an award under her belt!Listen on Spotify to Get Tressed With Us to get the details of every hair love affair in Hollywood, from the hits and misses on the red carpet to your favorite celebrities’ street style ‘dos (and don’ts!) Titled “A Call to Joy,” the duo calls frolics through a snowy forest, a cozy living rooms and a snow globe to bring together people in the name of the holidays. Naturally wearing all their most festive sweaters and party dresses.“Growing up with my big family in Toronto, I was excited every year to see the beautiful holiday window display at Hudson’s Bay,” O’Hara said in a statement, according to Tom + Lorenzo. “I was also thrilled knowing my Mom and Dad would be buying our Christmas presents there! So I’m very happy to join this festive campaign celebrating Canadians and our colorful holiday season.”- Advertisement –
The homes of four men are searched by German police investigating links with the Vienna gunman.- Advertisement –
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On Iran, a Resurgent Crisis“Oh, goddamn,” Mr. Biden fumed in the Situation Room in the summer of 2010, according to participants in the meeting, as news began to leak that a highly classified effort by the United States and Israel to destroy Iran’s nuclear program with a cyberweapon — later called “Stuxnet’’ — was about to be exposed because the computer code was being replicated around the world. “It’s got to be the Israelis. They went too far.”A decade later, that effort to undermine the Iranian nuclear effort appears to be the birth of a new age of conflict, one in which Mr. Biden was a key player. He favored the covert effort, because he was looking for any way to slow Iran’s progress without risking war in the Middle East. He later told colleagues that he believed the covert program helped bring the country to the negotiating table for what became the Iran nuclear deal five years later.Now Mr. Biden says the first step with Iran is to restore the status quo — which means re-entering the deal if Iran’s Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, is willing to return to production limits announced in 2015. But it won’t be that simple. The Iranians have indicated there will be a higher price to pay for Mr. Trump’s breach. And some of the key restrictions on Iran begin to lift soon: The first phase of an arms embargo expired in October, clearing the way for the Russians and the Chinese to begin resuming sales. And there will soon be a new Iranian president, with unknown effects on potential talks.Mr. Biden’s aides say that returning to the deal that Mr. Trump exited “shifts the burden” back on Tehran.“If Iran decides it’s not going to come back into compliance,” Mr. Blinken said, “we’re in a much stronger position to elicit support from allies and partners” who are now blaming Mr. Trump for starting the crisis by rejecting an agreement the United States had already made.The China ChallengeIn 2012, Mr. Biden was the host when Mr. Xi came to Washington. The vice president praised the guest from Beijing as a rising reformer who was “prepared to show another side of the Chinese leadership.” Mr. Biden was among those to celebrate China’s inevitable but “peaceful rise,” followed by assurance that trying to contain its power was a fool’s errand.By this year, he had revised his view. “This is a guy who is a thug,” Mr. Biden said. WASHINGTON — President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. makes no secret of the speed with which he plans to bury “America First” as a guiding principle of the nation’s foreign policy.He says he will re-enter the Iran nuclear deal, assuming the Iranians are willing to reverse course and observe its limits.- Advertisement – So during the campaign, he went after Mr. Trump for “fake toughness” and argued that “Trump lost a trade war that he started.” What he meant was that the Trump-era tariffs on Chinese goods were ultimately underwritten by American taxpayers in the form of government subsidies to compensate farmers and others who lost sales.Mr. Biden has said little about how he would push back. And even if he settles the long-running arguments over agricultural goods and the theft of intellectual property by Beijing, Mr. Biden will face challenges never discussed when Mr. Xi was visiting eight years ago: managing technological inroads by firms like Huawei, the Chinese telecommunications giant, and TikTok, the app that has seized the imaginations and phones of 100 million Americans.Mr. Biden has suggested that the Trump crackdowns might continue — though surrounded by more skillful diplomacy to bring European and other allies on board.“God only knows what they’re doing with information they’re picking up off of here,” he said of the Chinese. “So as president, I will go into it very deeply. I’ll get the cyberexperts in with me to give me what is the best solution to deal with it.”Complicating the issue is Mr. Biden’s insistence that, unlike Mr. Trump, he will put values back at the center of foreign policy, including how to approach the U.S.-China relationship, a milder echo of Bill Clinton’s pledge in the 1992 race to take on “the butchers of Beijing.”Presumably that means making China pay a price for Mr. Xi’s controls on dissent, including the national security laws that led to detention camps in Xinjiang, arrests of dissidents in Hong Kong and the ouster of foreign journalists who were the last bastion of independent reporting in China. China is just one arena — though probably the most important — where Mr. Biden’s long-held views will come into first contact with new realities.Afghanistan and the Use of U.S. ForceRobert M. Gates, the defense secretary who served both Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama, described Mr. Biden as “impossible not to like” because he was “funny, profane and humorously self-aware of his motormouth.” But Mr. Gates also famously declared that Mr. Biden “has been wrong on nearly every major foreign policy and national security issue over the past four decades.” “We will deter, and impose costs for, Mr. Putin’s meddling and aggression,” Mr. Blinken said. “But there’s a flip side” to dealing with Moscow, he added. Mr. Putin is “looking to relieve Russia’s growing dependence on China,” Mr. Blinken said, which has left him in “not a very comfortable position.”That suggests the Biden administration could try to use the suspicions that Moscow and Beijing have of each other to split the two superpowers — just as President Richard M. Nixon used it, in reverse, to win his opening with China nearly 50 years ago. Confronting RussiaIn the Cold War, Democrats were often portrayed as the party of appeasement to Moscow. Mr. Biden is the first Democrat to turn the tables: He is neither dismissive of the Russian threat as Mr. Obama was when he debated Mitt Romney, the Republican nominee in 2012, nor is he eager to bring a big red “reset” button to Moscow, as Hillary Clinton did in her opening days as secretary of state. In the campaign, Mr. Biden seized on the U.S. intelligence assessment that Russia preferred Mr. Trump, telling reporters in Nevada that “Putin knows me, and I know him, and he doesn’t want me to be president.” He is probably right: After details of the extent of the Russian interference in 2016 became clear, followed by Mr. Trump’s unwillingness to confront Mr. Putin, Democrats have become the party of Russia hawks.For most of the campaign, Mr. Biden assailed Mr. Trump for “cozying up to dictators” and describing how, if elected, he was prepared to punish Russia. As president, Mr. Biden will have to deal with a Russia whose arsenal includes 1,550 deployed nuclear weapons and a raft of tactical nuclear weapons that it has been deploying freely, even before Mr. Trump exited the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.How would Mr. Biden end the downward spiral? He would start with a five-year extension of New START, Mr. Blinken said in an interview, since the treaty lapses 16 days after inauguration. Then he would seek to expand the treaty to other types of weapons and perhaps more countries. And he would play on Mr. Putin’s growing economic fragility. – Advertisement – He never stated what kind of “price” he had in mind for President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia to pay, though one of his longtime foreign policy advisers, Jake Sullivan, offered a bit of detail. Just before Election Day, he said that Mr. Biden was willing to impose “substantial and lasting costs on perpetrators of the Russian interference,” which could include financial sanctions, asset freezes, counter cyberattacks and, “potentially, the exposure of corruption by the leaders of foreign countries.”That would signify a hardening in U.S. policy. But it would also involve steps that the Obama administration considered taking in its last six months, when Mr. Biden was vice president, and never carried out.The sharp change on Russia offers a glimpse of the detailed planning that Mr. Biden’s transition team, organized late last spring, has engaged in to reverse Mr. Trump’s approach to the world. It has built a foreign policy team of formal and informal advisers, largely drawn from midlevel and senior Obama administration officials who are poised to return. There are timelines for opening negotiations, re-entering treaties and early summit meetings.But their plans show some notable breaks from the Obama administration’s strategy. Mr. Biden is clearly rethinking positions he took in the Senate and in the White House.The most vivid example, officials say, will come in rethinking China strategy. His own advisers concede that in the Obama years, Mr. Biden and his national security team underestimated the speed with which President Xi Jinping of China would crack down on dissent at home and use the combination of its 5G networks and its Belt and Road Initiative to challenge U.S. influence.“Neither carrots nor sticks have swayed China as predicted,” Kurt Campbell, who served as the assistant secretary of state for Asia, and Ely Ratner, one of Mr. Biden’s deputy national security advisers, wrote in a Foreign Affairs article in 2018 that reflected this shift. “Diplomatic and commercial engagement have not brought political and economic openness. Neither U.S. military power nor regional balancing has stopped Beijing from seeking to displace core components of the U.S.-led system.” But mostly, Mr. Biden said in a statement to The New York Times, he wants to bring an end to a slogan that came to define a United States that built walls and made working with allies an afterthought — and, in Mr. Biden’s view, undermined any chance of forging a common international approach to fighting a pandemic that has cost more than 1.2 million lives.- Advertisement – That assessment included Mr. Biden’s view on Afghanistan — where he argued, in the early days of the Obama administration in 2009, for a minimal force focused on a counterterrorism mission. Mr. Gates later recalled in his memoir that Mr. Biden was convinced that the military was trying to put the squeeze on the president to send more troops for a war the vice president thought was politically unsustainable.Mr. Biden was overruled — by Mr. Obama, who nearly doubled the force size in Afghanistan in 2009 before moving to a drawdown.But what was once a setback for Mr. Biden has now become something of a political asset: Mr. Trump’s effort to cast him as an advocate of “endless wars” fell flat. Mr. Biden, according to Mr. Sullivan, “wants to convert our presence to a counterterrorism capability” aimed at protecting the United States by keeping Qaeda forces or the Islamic State from establishing a base in Afghanistan.“It would be limited and targeted,” Mr. Sullivan said. “That’s where he was in 2009, and that is where he is today.” He would sign up for another five years of the only surviving nuclear arms treaty with Russia and double down on American commitments to NATO after four years of threats from President Trump to withdraw from the alliance that guided the West through the Cold War.At the same time, Mr. Biden says he will make Russia “pay a price” for what he says have been disruptions and attempts to influence elections — including his own. “Whether we like it or not, the world simply does not organize itself,” said Antony J. Blinken, Mr. Biden’s longtime national security adviser. “Until the Trump administration, in Democratic and Republican administrations, the United States did a lot of that organizing, and we made some mistakes along the way, for sure.” Now, however, the United States has discovered what happens “when some other country tries to take our place or, maybe even worse, no one does, and you end up with a vacuum that is filled by bad events.”Mr. Blinken acknowledged that for those allies — or opponents of Mr. Trump — looking to reset the clock to noon on Jan. 20, 2017, “it’s not going to happen.”Those who have known Mr. Biden for decades say they expect him to move carefully, providing reassurance with a few big symbolic acts, starting with a return to the Paris climate accord in the first days of his administration. But substantive rebuilding of U.S. power will proceed far more slowly.“He’ll inherit a situation which both gives him enormous latitude and, oddly, constrains him,” said Richard N. Haass, the president of the Council on Foreign Relations and a longtime friend of Mr. Biden’s. “Clearly, what Trump did by executive order can be undone by executive order.”But “any act that requires Senate approach or any new use of force, absent a clear provocation, will be pretty much off the table,” he added.At 77, Mr. Biden has his own back-to-the-future vision of how to dispense with “America First”: “This is the time to tap the strength and audacity that took us to victory in two world wars and brought down the Iron Curtain,” he wrote in Foreign Affairs in March. Yet in a campaign in which foreign policy was rarely mentioned, Mr. Biden was never pressed on how the current iteration of superpower competition differs from what he remembers from early in his political career. “Tragically, the one place Donald Trump has made ‘America First’ is his failed response to the coronavirus: We’re 4 percent of the world’s population, yet have had 20 percent of the deaths,” Mr. Biden said days before the election. “On top of Trump embracing the world’s autocrats and poking his finger in the eye of our democratic allies, that’s another reason respect for American leadership is in free fall.”But it is far easier to promise to return to the largely internationalist approach of the post-World War II era than it is to execute one after four years of global withdrawal and during a pandemic that has reinforced nationalist instincts. The world does not look remotely as it did when Mr. Biden last engaged it from the White House four years ago. Power vacuums have been created, and filled, often by China. Democracies have retreated. The race for a vaccine has created new rivalries.So while foreign allies may find Mr. Biden reassuring — and smiled when they heard him say in a town-hall meeting that “‘America First’ has made America alone” — they also concede that they may never fully trust that the United States will not lurch back to building walls.- Advertisement – In interviews in the past several weeks, Mr. Biden’s top advisers began to outline a restoration that might be called the Great Undoing, an effort to reverse course on Mr. Trump’s aggressive attempt to withdraw to American borders.
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Over the weekend, reports of empty shelves prompted grocers to reinstate limits on buying items like hand soap and toilet paper. [The San Diego Union-Tribune] Jill Cowan grew up in Orange County, graduated from U.C. Berkeley and has reported all over the state, including the Bay Area, Bakersfield and Los Angeles — but she always wants to see more. Follow along here or on Twitter.California Today is edited by Julie Bloom, who grew up in Los Angeles and graduated from U.C. Berkeley. In those counties, restaurants, gyms and houses of worship will have to shut down unless they can move outdoors.Mr. Newsom said health care facilities that were set up near the beginning of the pandemic at arenas and other large spaces were being prepared to quickly open for patients, if necessary. One such facility will open in the next week or so in Imperial County, which was overwhelmed by Covid over the summer, he said. Five people were charged in the toppling of a Junipero Serra statue in San Rafael amid protests over the colonization of California and the displacement and killings of Native Americans. San Francisco’s archbishop applauded the charges. [Religion News Service] The announcement came as the United States reported its 11 millionth confirmed case on Sunday, with a recent average of 150,000 new cases a day, and will probably reach 250,000 total deaths sometime this week. One million cases were recorded in the country over the past week alone.[Read about the state’s tiered reopening framework.]Daily case reports are rising in 48 states, and with little action from the Trump administration, governors and mayors across the country are taking new steps to try to halt the spread. On Monday, a sweeping stay-at-home advisory went into effect in Chicago. New Mexico is under a two-week lockdown, and North Dakota has imposed a mask mandate.While the dire outlook across the rest of the country has perhaps made California look almost stable by comparison, Mr. Newsom said that California’s daily case numbers had doubled in the last 10 days, the fastest increase the state had seen since the beginning of the pandemic.The state reached one million known cases on Nov. 12, and the next day issued travel advisories, along with Oregon and Washington. Wearable trackers are the next phase of early Covid detection. But they could also usher in more invasive forms of surveillance. [The New York Times] – Advertisement – [Read more about California’s travel guidelines.]The increases, the governor said, cross age and racial or ethnic groups and appear throughout the state.In Los Angeles County, which has struggled for months with higher case numbers, officials stopped short of ordering additional closures, but urged residents to behave more cautiously.State leaders, including Mr. Newsom, have told residents not to gather with people from outside their households, and to resist visiting relatives over the holidays.Much of the recent rise in cases, state officials say, appears to have grown from at-home parties or family gatherings.But in what is likely to be remembered as one of the governor’s more damaging — not to mention embarrassing — episodes of the pandemic, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that Mr. Newsom attended an outdoor dinner for one of his political advisers at the French Laundry, the famed Napa Valley destination, with guests from several households.[Read about California’s rules for gathering.]The gathering did not technically violate the state’s rules, because there is no formal limit on the number of households at each outdoor restaurant table, but as critics noted, the governor’s attendance undermined the spirit of restrictions.Mr. Newsom apologized on Monday, saying that he should have turned around and left when he realized there were more guests at the party than he expected. The incoming administration is intent on keeping the Department of Homeland Security, which has been bent to President Trump’s will. Still, big changes are coming, as President-elect Joe Biden works to roll back Trump administration immigration policies. [The New York Times] Good morning.Californians who have been keeping a wary eye on the state’s rising Covid numbers and wondering whether the hammer might fall got their answer on Monday: Gov. Gavin Newsom announced that the state was “pulling the emergency brake” on its reopening plan, reinstating broad restrictions across much of the state.- Advertisement – “Politics plays a role.” In 2019, hate crimes in the United States rose to their highest level in more than a decade. [The New York Times] “We’re moving from a marathon to a sprint,” Mr. Newsom said.More than 40 counties were moved backward in the state’s reopening tiers, including 28 counties that were moved back into the most restrictive purple tier, which now encompasses more than 94 percent of the state’s population.[Track California’s coronavirus case numbers and hospitalizations.]- Advertisement – Doctors and nurses are burning out and calling it quits under the prolonged stress of the pandemic. [The New York Times] The governor wasn’t the only California lawmaker not leading by example: An unknown number of legislators went to an annual summit in Maui even as the state announced travel advisories and restrictions. [The Sacramento Bee] More California elections have been called: The Republican Young Kim narrowly defeated Representative Gil Cisneros, flipping a second Orange County seat. See all the results. [The New York Times] The state is also looking into a possible curfew and will adjust restriction levels more frequently than has been the case.- Advertisement – Basic training for Marine recruits looks different during Covid. But the fundamentals of discipline are the same. The case rates suggest it’s working to keep spread low among the ranks. [The New York Times] “Somebody’s going to message me and say like, so-and-so was caught doing drugs at a party or having a threesome or whatever,” she said. “It’s just not as exciting as it sounds anymore.” The woman behind the celebrity gossip account @deuxmoi speaks. [The New York Times] California’s new guidelines have left Bay Area health officials scrambling to decide what to do about college football games scheduled for this weekend. [The Mercury News] The University of California system agreed to pay $73 million to more than 5,500 women who were patients of a former U.C.L.A. gynecologist charged with sexual assault. [The New York Times] Catch up on the French Laundry birthday party the governor attended. [The San Francisco Chronicle]And read about Jason Kinney, the political operative whose birthday it was. [Politico] California Today goes live at 6:30 a.m. Pacific time weekdays. Tell us what you want to see: CAtoday@nytimes.com. Were you forwarded this email? Sign up for California Today here and read every edition online here. Here’s what else to know today “You own the mistake and you don’t ever make it again,” he said. “I expect more from myself and you have that commitment in my resolve.”That “Covid fatigue,” he said, is real.Dr. Bob Wachter, a professor and chair of the University of California, San Francisco’s department of medicine, told me on Monday that the moves by the state seemed prudent in light of rising case numbers.“This strikes me as a reasonable set of actions, particularly with Thanksgiving coming up,” Dr. Wachter said. “Whether or not it’s enough, I guess we’ll see.”(This article is part of the California Today newsletter. Sign up to get it delivered to your inbox.)Read more:
Oct 3, 2006 (CIDRAP News) – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is urging clinical laboratories to use bacterial culture of stool specimens in suspected cases of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection to facilitate diagnosis and proper control measures.Failure to culture specimens can cause labs to mistake some other pathogen for E coli O157:H7, leading to inappropriate public health measures, the CDC warns in the Sep 29 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.That happened last year in North Carolina, where a clinical lab used enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to look for Shiga toxin—which is produced by E coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E coli strains—in a specimen from a baby. Test results were positive, leading authorities to take public health measures appropriate for Shiga toxin–producing E coli (STEC) strains. Those included barring the baby and several other sick children from their day care center until two stool cultures showed them to be free of STEC.”Some days” after the EIA result, the lab sent the patient sample to the state public health lab, which tested it and found no STEC, the report says. The sample was then sent to the CDC, where an EIA again showed Shiga toxin, but further tests for Shiga toxin genes were negative. Subsequently the state lab tested more samples from the index patient and four other patients and found they had norovirus.After this finding, authorities changed the control measures, and the sick children were allowed to return to the day care center as soon as they were well, the report says.”As the North Carolina outbreak demonstrates, occasional false-positive results from the Stx [Shiga toxin] EIA test can result in inappropriate and unnecessary public health action,” the CDC states. If the lab had cultured for E coli O157 at the same time as it ran the EIA or immediately afterward, a negative result might have prompted an earlier search for norovirus, the report says.The article also reports on an outbreak in a New York state prison last year that turned out to have been caused by E coli O45:nonmotile, a far less common strain than O157:H7. In that episode, an EIA pointed to Shiga toxin, but cultures were negative for E coli O157:H7. Eventually the CDC tested isolates from three patients and identified the O45 serotype.The CDC recommends that clinical labs use EIA to screen stool samples for Shiga toxins and, ideally, culture samples for STEC O157 at the same time, which facilitates rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients and rapid subtyping by public health labs.Labs that don’t simultaneously culture samples for STEC O157 should culture any Shiga toxin–positive broths for STEC O157 as soon as possible and send the isolates to a public health lab for confirmation and subtyping, the CDC advises. If a Shiga toxin–positive broth does not yield STEC O157, it should be sent to a public health lab for identification of non–O157 STEC. Public health labs should send all non–O157 STEC isolates to the CDC for confirmation, the agency says.CDC. Importance of culture confirmation of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli infection as illustrated by outbreaks of gastroenteritis—New York and North Carolina, 2005. MMWR 2006 Sep 29;55(38):1042-5 [Full text]
Oct 8, 2008 (CIDRAP News) – Two biotechnology companies—Crucell, based in the Netherlands, and Integrated BioTherapeutics, based in Germantown, Md.—recently announced that they have received $30 million and $22 million contracts, respectively, from the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to develop single vaccines that would protect against both Ebola and Marburg viruses.The two hemorrhagic fever viruses are sources of emerging infectious diseases in humans, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and are considered category A bioterrorism agents by the US government. Both diseases are known for their high case-fatality rates, and there are no specific treatments or vaccines for Marburg and Ebola fevers.NIAID contracts for both companies provide further funding if the National Institutes of Health (NIH) exercises additional options for the vaccines: $40 million for Crucell and an extra $43 million for Integrated BioTherapeutics, according to press releases from both firms.Crucell pursues adenovirus vector technologyJaap Goudsmit, Crucell’s chief scientific officer, said in the company’s Oct 3 statement that the NIAID contract will support the development of its multivalent filovirus vaccine that uses its proprietary AdVac technology.”This award recognizes the scientific bases for using rare adenovirus serotypes to develop vaccines,” he said. “The contract builds upon earlier work Crucell has performed with the Vaccine Research Center at the NIH and brings us a step closer to being able to provide effective countermeasures against a highly lethal infectious disease.”Crucell said its AdVac technology involves inserting genetic material from a virus or pathogen into a “vector” that delivers the material directly to the immune system to stimulate an immune response.The AdVac technology is also designed to avoid problems with preexisting immunity to the most commonly used recombinant vaccine vector, adenovirus serotype 5, according to the company. Instead, the new technology is based on adenoviruses that don’t regularly occur in humans, such as Ad35, which may enable the vaccine to provoke a more robust immune response.Integrated BioTherapeutics advances VLP approachJavad Aman, president and chief scientific officer of Integrated BioTherapeutics, said in an Oct 2 statement from the company that the NIAID contract will support advanced development of its virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola and Marburg viruses.”This is a significant step forward in our mission to improving public health and developing countermeasures for biodefense,” he said. “The contract will fund a major portion of the preclinical and clinical activities required to confirm and refine the activity in animals and verify the activity in humans.”The company said it is collaborating with researchers at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) to develop a VLP vaccine that that has broad-spectrum activity toward different strains of Ebola and Marburg viruses. It said the vaccine has been shown to provide broad protection in nonhuman primates.With the initial $22 million phase of the grant, Integrated BioTherapeutics said it will conduct preclinical activities and studies. If NIAID exercises its contract option, the extra fund would cover phase 1 and 2 clinical trials and lay the manufacturing groundwork.See also:Oct 3 Crucell press releasehttp://cws.huginonline.com/C/132631/PR/200810/1256673_5_5.htmlOct 2 Integrated BioTherapeutics press releasehttp://www.integratedbiotherapeutics.com/news.html